When it comes to population size, Europe and Africa are two of the most populous continents in the world. Europe is the second most populous continent, with an estimated population of 743 million in 2020, while Africa is the most populous, with an estimated population of 1.34 billion.
So why does Europe have a smaller population than Africa?
The answer is complex, but it largely relates to geography and historical factors. Europe is a much smaller continent than Africa, covering just 10.2 million square kilometers, compared to the 30.2 million square kilometers that make up Africa. This means that Europe has a much smaller land area to support a larger population, making it difficult for the continent to reach the same population numbers as Africa.
Historical factors have also played an important role in the population size of Europe and Africa. Europe has a long history of wars and invasions, resulting in millions of deaths, while in Africa, many regions have experienced periods of migration, resulting in higher population growth. For example, in the 16th century, the population of Africa was estimated to be around 70 million, while Europe had a population of just 40 million, according to historical records.
In addition, Europe has a much lower fertility rate than Africa. This means that there are fewer births in Europe than in Africa, resulting in a lower population growth rate. Secondly, Europe has a much higher mortality rate than Africa. This means that there are more deaths in Europe than in Africa, leading to a lower population growth rate.
Another factor that affects population size is immigration. Europe has stricter immigration laws than Africa, meaning that fewer people are able to migrate to Europe in comparison to Africa. This contributes to the population difference between the two continents.
The final factor for Europe's smaller population compared to Africa is its slower economic growth. Europe has experienced slower economic growth than Africa in recent years, leading to a decrease in the number of employed people and higher unemployment rates. In addition, Europe's aging population is also contributing to a decrease in the continent's population.
While there are many factors that have contributed to the population size difference between Europe and Africa, it is clear that geography and historical events have played a major role in the continent’s population size. Europe may be smaller than Africa, but it is still home to some of the world’s most powerful and influential countries, making it one of the most important continents in the world.