What makes the Indian constitution different from others?

Asked 20-Sep-2022
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TheIndian Constitution is the country's highest law. It establishes the foundation for defining core political principles, as well as the fundamental rights, guiding principles, and obligations of citizens. It also outlines the structure, operations, and responsibilities of governmental institutions. With its 448 articles divided into 22 parts, 12 schedules, and 98 amendments, it is the longest constitution in the world.

The Constitution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, with Dr. B. R. Ambedkar as chairman, and came into effect on 26 January 1950. To honor the 1930 Purna Swaraj Declaration of Independence, the date of January 26 was chosen. The Government of India Act of 1935 was legally replaced by the Union of India Act with its passage, making it the current and contemporary Republic of India.

The Constitution declares India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic, guaranteeing its citizens justice, equality, and liberty, and endeavors to promote fraternity among them. The words 'socialist' and 'secular' were added to the Preamble in 1976 by the 42nd Amendment. The Constitution provides for a parliamentary system of government with a bicameral legislature. It separates powers between the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary, and stipulates the powers and functions of the Union and the states. 

The Constitution has been amended several times since 1950. As of November 2019, there have been 103 amendments. The first amendment was passed in 1951, just one year after the constitution came into effect. Several amendments were made to the constitution in its formative years in order to deal with the problems that had arisen in its working. The most significant changes were made by the 42nd Amendment in 1976 when the Preamble was amended to include the words 'socialist' and 'secular'.

India is a land of diversity – in culture, language, religion, and more. It's no surprise then, that its constitution is also one of the most unique in the world. Here are some of the things that make the Indian constitution different from others:

1. It is the longest constitution in the world.

The Indian constitution has been amended several times since it was first enacted in 1950, and it now comprises more than 400 articles. This makes it the longest constitution in the world – a far cry from the brief US constitution, which has just 7 articles.

2. It recognizes 22 official languages.

In India, there are 22 languages that are recognized as official by the constitution. These include Hindi, English, Bengali, Telugu, Tamil, and Marathi, among others. This recognition of multiple languages is unique and reflects the country's incredible linguistic diversity.

3. It has a special provision for Scheduled Tribes.

The constitution recognizes the country's Scheduled Tribes – those communities that are considered to be particularly disadvantaged or marginalized. It sets aside seats in the parliament and state legislatures for these communities and also provides for special laws and programs to help them develop.

4. It establishes a secular state.

One of the most important features of the Indian constitution is its secularism. This means that the state does not favor any particular religion and instead treats all religions equally. This is in contrast to many other countries, where the state may be closely aligned with a particular religion.

5. It has a unique system of checks and balances.

The Indian constitution provides for a system of checks and balances that is designed to prevent any one branch of government from becoming too powerful. For example, the president can veto laws passed by parliament, and the supreme court can strike down laws that it considers to be unconstitutional.

These are just some of the things that make the Indian constitution unique. It is a document that reflects the country's diversity and provides for a system of government that is designed to protect the rights of all its citizens.