What is the meaning of "liberty" in the Indian Constitution's Article 21?

Asked 09-Sep-2022
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What is the meaning of 'liberty' in the Indian Constitution's Article 21?


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The Constitution of India guarantees all its citizens the right to life and personal liberty. Article 21 of the Constitution states that 'no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.'

The right to life is a fundamental right that the Constitution guarantees. It encompasses the right to live in dignity as well as the right to live in peace and harmony. The right to personal liberty includes the freedom to move, the freedom to express oneself, the freedom to associate, the right to privacy, and the right to liberty and security of person.

The meaning of 'liberty' in Article 21 of the Constitution has been the subject of much debate and interpretation by the courts. The Supreme Court has interpreted the term 'liberty' in a broad and inclusive manner. It has held that the right to life includes the right to live with dignity and the right to live in peace and harmony. The right to personal liberty includes the right to freedom of movement, the right to freedom of expression, the right to freedom of association, the right to privacy, and the right to liberty and security of person.

The Supreme Court has also held that the right to life is not absolute and can be subject to reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interests of public order, morality, and health. However, the Court has held that the right to life cannot be infringed except in accordance with the procedure established by law.

The right to personal liberty is a fundamental right guaranteed by the Constitution. It includes the right to freedom of movement, the right to freedom of expression, the right to freedom of association, the right to privacy, and the right to liberty and security of person. The right to personal liberty is subject to reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interests of public order, morality, and health.

What is the meaning of liberty in the Indian Constitutions Article 21