In simple terms, the constitution of a state can be defined as a body of written and unwritten rules and regulations by which a government is formed and functions.
It is a different matter that in order to fulfill the requirements of the democratic system, the constitution should adopt some more principles to clarify the relationship between individuals and their state in the form of a declaration of fundamental rights and duties.
Therefore, the constitution can be called a collection of rules according to which the powers of governance adjust the authority of the governed and the relationship between the two. In other words, it can be called the structure of a political society formed by and through the law, in which the law has established permanent institutions with clear duties and assured rights.
Thus, it is a statutory instrument known by different names like: 'Rule of State', 'Instrument of Governance', 'Fundamental Law of the Country', 'Basic Legislation of Polity', 'Foundation of Nation-State' etc. goes . In Garner's view: 'It incorporates the more essential organs of the state's exclusive public law.'
Jameson has said: 'It may be written in detailed or concise form in the technical language of some formulas relating to its citizens or subjects on behalf of the state, or the rules of the constitution, or most of them proven statements, practices, examples and practices. As can be. '
The essential thing is that these rules in the form of a rule determine the formation and functioning of the state's governance. It can be a work done in the form of a document prepared by an assembly or conference or it can also be a collection of authorized documents of the state, the best example of which can be seen in the Constitution of England.
The Constitution of India is the largest written constitution in the world. It was approved by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949. Therefore, this day is celebrated as Constitution Day across the country.
As soon as we got independence, work was started to make the constitution to run the country. In this series, on 29 August 1947, the Drafting Committee for the framing of the Indian Constitution was established and the responsibility was assigned to Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar as its President. After closely scrutinizing all the constitutions around the world, Dr. Ambedkar drafted the Indian Constitution. It was brought before the Indian Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949. On this day, the Constituent Assembly adopted it. This is the reason that 26 November is celebrated every year in the country as Constitution Day.
Largest written constitution
The Constitution of India is the largest written constitution in the world. On this basis, India is called the world's largest republic. The Indian Constitution consists of 448 Articles, 12 Schedules. It was prepared in 2 years 11 months 18 days. In January 1948, the first draft of the Constitution was presented for discussion. This discussion, which began on 4 November 1948, lasted for about 32 days. 7,635 amendments were proposed during this period of which 2,473 were discussed in detail.
Applicable on 26 January
After coming into force on 26 November 1949, 284 members of the Constituent Assembly signed the constitution on 24 January 1950. After this, it was implemented on 26 January. It is said that on the day the Constitution was being signed, it was raining heavily. This was considered as auspicious sign.
Original copy written with pen not typing
The original copy of the Indian Constitution was handwritten in both Hindi and English. It did not use typing or print. The constitution in both languages was written by Prem Bihari Narayan Raizada. Raizada's family profession was of calligraphy. He has written every page of the constitution in a very beautiful italic handwriting using 254 pen holder nib of number 303. It took him 6 months to write it. When he was asked to pay, he refused to take anything. He only laid a condition that on every page of the Constitution he would write his name and on the last page he would write his grandfather's name along with his name.
Original copy kept in helium filled gas
Every page of the Indian Constitution is decorated with pictures by Acharya Nandlal Bose. Apart from this, Ram Manohar Sinha has done the work of decorating its prologue page. He was a disciple of Nandlal Bose. The fair copy of the constitution is kept in the library of Indian Parliament in a case filled with helium.