Launched in the year 1901 by the Nobel Foundation in memory of Sweden scientist Alfred Nobel, it is the world's highest award in the fields of peace, literature, physics, chemistry, medical science and economics. An amount of USD 1 million is awarded with a citation as a prize. Alfred Nobel made a total of 355 inventions, including the invention of dynamite made in 18.
Nobel had a great understanding of dynamite and the destructive power of many inventions of this kind of science. At the same time, there was also a strong realization of the need for continuous new research for development. Before his death in December 1897, he reserved a large part of his vast wealth for a trust.
He wished that the interest of this money should be awarded every year to those whose work is found to be most welfare for mankind. This prize is given annually by the Nobel Foundation for outstanding contributions to peace, literature, physics, chemistry, medical science and economics, with the same amount of interest deposited in the Swedish bank.
The Nobel Foundation was established on 29 June 1900 and from 1901 the Nobel Prize started being awarded. The Nobel Prize in Economics was started in 1968. The first Nobel Peace Prize was given jointly in 1901 to Henry Dunant, the founder of the Red Cross, and to the founder president of the French Peace Society, Frederick Passy.
The first Nobel Prize was awarded in 1901 in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Literature and Peace. The first Nobel Prize was awarded to Wilhelm Conrad Rautzen in the field of physics, Jacobus Henriques vant Hoff in the field of chemistry, Emil von Behring in the field of medicine, Sully Prudhomme in the field of literature and Henry Dunant in the field of peace.
Every year awards to those who have done best in the fields of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and peace.
From 1901 to 2018, 52 times women have received Nobel Prizes. Only one woman, Marie Curie, was awarded this award twice, receiving the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903 and Chemistry in 1911. Accordingly, so far 51 women have received the Nobel Prize.