Our body is a combination of different types of Cells. Many cells are specialized to perform a specific task, like
Red Blood Cells (RBCs) these cells carry Oxygen to our whole with through the blood, but RBCs don’t divide but they regenerate at a certain age limit. In contrast to this, Stem Cells are those types of cells which regenerate new cells. These cells grow into the body or at a specific
environment to replace the original cells which get damaged or lost.
The Stem Cells have two unique property i.e. Firstly, it can regenerate or divide multiple times to produce new cells. Secondly, while dividing, they can change into the other types of cells that are required to the body. These regenerated cells in a specific environment or in the body divide to form more cells, which are called ‘Daughter Cells’. These daughter cells become the new Stem Cell or the specialized cell, which performs a specific task like
, Blood Cells, Heart Muscle Cell, or Bone Cells. No other cell in the body has this ability which regenerates and replaces the old cell in the body.
These Stem Cells help against fighting various diseases and health-related problems like Spinal Cord injury, Type 1
, Parkinson’s Disease, Sclerosis, Alzheimer, Heart Problem,
, Osteoarthritis, etc.
There are mainly three types of Stem Cells:
1. Embryonic Stem Cell: These cells generate new cells for an embryo to grow and develop as a baby. These cells are medically termed as ‘Pluripotent’. It means these cells can change into any cells while forming the body and different organs.
2. Adult System Cell:
These cells regenerate new cells as the current cell gets damaged or body needs while a person is at his or her growing stage. These cells are termed as, ‘Multipotent’. It means they can only change into some cells in the body, not any cell. Example:
Stem Cell can regenerate the various types of blood cells. Skin Stem Cell can regenerate different types of cells which can replace the skin layer or hair of the body.
3. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: These cells are regenerated by the scientist into the laboratory. It means, scientists make these cells by taking the adult cell (skin or blood cells) and reprogram them to become a stem cell.