Bal Gangadhar Tilak was the first to devise the Doctrine of Passive Resistance by leading a ‘No-rent Campaign’. The no-rent campaign was a form of non-payment of taxes. The campaign was initiated by Bal Gangadhar Tilak in 1896 in the wake of the 1896 famine.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak was born on 23rd July 1856 in Ratnagiri, Bombay State, British India (present-day Maharashtra, India) as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak. A nationalist, lawyer, teacher, social reformer and an Independence activist, Bal Gangadhar Tilak was the first leader of the Indian freedom struggle. He was called the ‘The father of the Indian unrest’ by the British authorities. The famous quote “Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it” was given by Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The quote was given against the British rule. He was given the title of ‘Lokmanya ’ meaning accepted by the people (as their leader).
Lokmanya Tilak (Bal Gangadhar Tilak) joined the Indian National Congress in 1890. He was closely associated with Aurobindo Ghosh, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal, Muhammad Ali Jinnah and V.O. Chidambaram Pillai. Bal Gangadhar Tilak was against the moderate attitude towards the fight for self-government. Opposing the moderate views of Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Bal Gangadhar Tilak was supported by fellow nationalists Bipin Chandra Pal in Bengal and Lala Lajpat Rai in Punjab. Together they were referred to as ‘Lal-Bal-Pal’. The Indian National Congress was split into Moderates and Extremists following the Swadeshi movement of 1905 – 1907.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak later rejoined the Indian National Congress in 1916. Uniting with his fellow nationalists G.S. Khapade and Annie Besant, Tilak founded the All India Home Rule League in the same year. Lokmanya Tilak also wrote a book named The Arctic Home in Vedas in the year 1903. His other books include The Orion. While in prison in Mandalay, Bal Gangadhar Tilak authored ‘Shrimadh Bhagavad Gita Rahasya’. Bal Gangadhar Tilak died on 1st August 1920 at the age of 64 in Bombay, British India (present-day Maharashtra, India).